Wheat Straw Treatment As Prepared By KVK Baramati

Treatment of wheat / Rice straw or low quality fodder waste

Prepared by Dr. D.P. Bhoite, M.V.Sc (KVK Baramati)


Many times it happened that remaining residues in farm are burned without using their potential in dairy farming. Waste of crop like wheat straw, Rice straw, Gram straw can be used as feed of animals but it need treatment.

Reason for treatment of crop residues

  • It is tasteless.
  • Some crop residues are having micro spines which cause injury to soft tissues in the mouth of animals.
  • Its energy as well as protein value is inferior.
  • Some of them are deficient in minerals.

It has seen that wheat straw or rice straw are available in abundant quantity as crop waste & many farmers used to burn it as traditional practice, so it is necessary to use it as a feed for animals after having treatment of following ingredients.

Sr.Ingredients Quantity
1 Wheat straw / rice straw/maize stovers etc. 100 KG
2 Urea 1.5 KG (1.5%)
3 Mineral Mixture 1 KG (1%)
4 Salt (Big Granules) 1 KG (1%)
5 Jaggery (If not available, waste flour in flour mill can be used) 3 KG (3%)
6 Water 30 - 40 Ltrs.

Treatment method

  • Dissolve urea in correct concentration (as above) in water (1.5 kg urea in 30-40 litres of water)
  • Then also add Salt, Mineral mixture & Jaggary (or Flour) in urea dissolved water to become concentrate single solution.
  • Make a layer of 6 inches of wheat or rice straw and sprinkle concentrates solution on it equally. Again mix this layer thoroughly & make a heap. Once again make a layer of 6 inch of this wheat straw and sprinkle the concentrated solution.
  • Make a heap & press it with the help of hand so that all air will expel out form heap. Then cover it with plastic paper for 2 hours.
  • Then use it for feed to animals.

Facts for urea/ammonia treatment

  • Urea provides readymade protein source for animals
  • Salt & mineral mixture provide essential mineral for animals which are lacking in crop residues.
  • Jaggery or flour provides taste to straw as straw is tasteless.
  • Water soften the spine as well as harder part in straw so it is easy to fed on it & may not cause any injury to soft tissues in mouths of animals.

Care to be taken for urea treated straw

  • Do not exceed the urea concentration for wheat straw more than 1.5 % for 100 kg of straw. If it will increase then there may be danger of urea poisoning to animals.
  • Care to be taken to dissolve each granules of urea in water thoroughly.
  • Use this urea treated straw immediately after 2 hours of treatment. Do not store treated material for more than 8 hours.
  • Daily use fresh treated straw for animals & for each animals use this straw 4-6 kg only for high producing dairy animals .If the animals are not in production then it is physible to use 7-8 kgs of treated wheat straw for feeding animals.
  • Mix treated wheat straw in chaffed green as well as dry fodder so that animal can not use its selective behavior of feeding.