Fruit and Vegetable Processing Residues

Apple (Malus pumila) Processing waste:

Several wastes from apple processing are suitable animal feeds. Apple pomace, the residual material from pressing apples for juice, contains pulp, peels and cores. Between 250 to 350 kg wet pomace are formed from each ton of apple pressed for juice, or 25 to 35 % of the fresh weight of the apple is retained in the pomace after pressing (Smock and Neubert, 1950). Apple pomace and pectin pulp wet, dried or ensiled are suitable feeds for ruminants animals (Smock and Neubert, 1950).  Apple pomace is palatable to cattle and sheep; pectin pulp is less palatable to dairy cattle cows than is apple pomace and addition of molasses was suggested to increase the palatability of pectin pulp. Average digestion coefficients of wet apple pomace for ruminants are protein 37, fat 46, fiber 65 and NFE 85%. Buris and Priode (1957) found apple pomace had feeding value similar to grass silage for wintering beef cattle. Fresh pomace spoils rapidly and must be used quickly or be preserved by dehydration or ensiling. Drying to about 10 % moisture prevents spoilage and spontaneous combustion. Urea treated apple pomace replaced 40% maize grain without affecting DMI, Feed efficiency, digestibility of nutrients and milk production (Bakalkar, 1987).

In 1999 the total production of banana was (16.81 million tones) in India (Indian Horticulture Database, 2001). When fruits are harvested, the remaining banana plants are cut, left in the field for drying and later burnt or dumped on roadsides (Gupta, et al., 2001). In addition rejected bananas and peels are also thrown away. These can be ensiled effectively without the need for additives. They should first be processed in to chips, which can be done by hand or mechanically. If the material is to be fed to ruminants then urea will be needed to provide fermentable nitrogen prior to ensiling at a level of 3 per cent on DM basis (Preston, 1998).

Citrus (Citrus sp.) Waste:

The production of by products from the waste of the citrus processing industry has increased in recent decades (Cohn and Cohn, 1996). In the USA and Brazil all of the waste from the plant is dried and sold as animal feed pellets.  Cattle can be fed up to 40 kg/head/day without any harmful effects (Umoh, 1982). After expressing oranges, tangerines, lemons or grape fruit for juice, the left over which comprises the peel, seeds and rag and which amount to about 40-60 % by weight of the fruit could be very palatable to sheep, goats and cattle. However when citrus is fed to livestock supplemental protein, calcium and phosphorus should be offered, as it is relatively deficient in these nutrients. Citrus pulp mixed with grasses can produce very palatable silage if properly pressed before ensiling. The high fermentation rates however constitute the major storage problem, which may be minimized by pressing the pulp before ensiling.  Citrus pulp contains a relatively high amount of pectin and soluble carbohydrates, and for this reason dried citrus pulp has been used to replace cereals in ruminants diet (Bhattacharya and Harb, 1973).

Peach (Prunus persica) Processes Waste:

At the processing plant the cull and undersized fruits are removed. The total peach processing residue is 26 % of raw fruit.  The disposal methods used are land disposal 63, liquid waste 5, feed 17, and other by products, 15 % (katsuyama et al., 1973).


During harvesting most of the outer leaves of cabbage are left in the field, the remaining outer leaves and cores are removed in the processing plant which can be used as animal feed (Katsuyama et al., 1973).


Before processing, the carrots are graded and small, split and woody carrots are discarded. The carrots are lye or steam peeled.  Trimmed crowns are carried by water and removed by screening (Katsuyama et al., 1973).


The residues of cauliflower include upper and lower stems, and florets, culled flowers that are removed during processing (Femenia et al., 1998).

Empty Pea Pods:

The residues of pea processing plants, which can be included in diet of ruminants, are empty pea pods, shells, leaves, vines and unacceptable peas (Paliwal et al., 1992 and Atreja and Khan 2002).

Lady’s finger:

During processing the crown and tail portion of lady’s finger (okra) are removed manually or mechanically. The fibrous okra is also discarded as residue (Livingston et al., 1976).


India produces about 532.779 metric tons of pumpkin. The residue of pumpkin contains seeds, skins and fiber; seeds and skins are also screened from the water. A significant amount of fine particle passes through screens in to the wastewater (Livingston et al., 1976).

Ash Gourd:

The total production of ash gourd is (15.326 metric tones) in India. It is used as vegetable and in making sweets (petha). During preparation of sweets the skin and pulp are removed which can be used as animal feed successfully.


During processing weed, discolored leaves and roots are manually removed and disposed of. These parts can be fed to animals.

Tomato Pomace: 

The by-product is available after the extraction of juice and consists of skin pulp and seeds. After drying and grinding it becomes a good feed ingredient of concentrate mixture and can be used for cattle feeding (Paliwal, et al., 1992). Porte et al. (1993) reported that tomato pomace could be included up to 40% in the diet of steer without affecting performance.


Potato pulp is the by-product remaining after extraction of starch with cold water. Per 100 kg potatoes, 16-20 kg starch is produced and 3-3.5 kg dried potato pulp (Boucque and Fiems, 1988).

Sugar Beet:

After extraction of sugar, pulp is left which is valuable feedstuff for ruminants.   The pulp can be used as such with a DM content of 10-12% or pressed to 20-25 % or fried to 88-90% DM. About 5 kg beet pulp is obtained per 100 kg sugar beets.