Selective Breeding Scientific Interventions and Human Resources

For effective selective breeding, the existing farms of animals should be strengthened and more farms will be developed for production of elite breeding bulls. The cattle and buffalo breed of choice should be followed as far as possible. In cattle, for example, Sahiwal and Hariana are to be breed of choice in states like Haryana and Punjab, Tharparkar and Rathi are the breed of choice in Rajasthan. Similar to cattle, in certain states / pockets of states like Gujrat and Rajasthan, Jaffarabadi and Surti are recommended to be breed of choice; Murrah and Nili Ravi are the breed of choice in the Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P.

The improvement of indigenous cattle and buffalo breeds could be done through Network programme with the main objective of evaluating the cattle and buffalo bulls  through progeny testing programme  in large single herd or multiple herds.  As a result of Network programme in buffaloes about 38.29 % elite buffaloes were identified for the establishment of nucleus-breeding elite herd at NDRI. The EPA and best lactation 305 day milk yield of elite buffaloes varied from 1923-2845 kg and 2530-3812 kg. The average lactation milk yield of elite buffaloes is 2913 kg with the highest peak  and lactation milk yield recorded as 25.1 kg and 4427 kg in first lactation of buffalo born using the top ranking proven Murrah bull 4915 of NDRI center.

The genetic improvement in indigenous cattle and buffalo breeds should be mainly for reduction in age at maturity, age at calving, service period, calf mortality and for higher milk productivity and breeding efficiency which in turn will lead to higher economic returns to the farmers. The introduction of up to 50 % Bos Tauras in to Bos Indicus cows tends to improve the performance of various traits but beyond this the service period increased due to reduction in fertility, increased reproductive diseases and disease susceptibility. Most of the notable results under crossbreeding obtained in our conditions by maintaining the exotic level of blood between 50 to 62.5 percent.

The production of elite crossbred cow through A.I using high pedigree bull resulted the maximum recorded milk yield up to 59.5 Kg in our village condition.

No breeding programme is successful until and unless the optimum interventions of management, nutrition, health of animals and proper marketing infrastructure are provided. The skilled human resources are also to be developed in rural areas to look after the needs of different kinds of dairy animals.